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ACAT is Acetyl-Coenzyme A Acetyltransferase [ACAT] [mitochondria]
A block at this point in [ACAT] can lead to increased levels of MMA (Methylmalonic Acid)." ...."MMA may inhibit Succinate CoQ Reductase. The enzyme succinate CoQ Reductase is important in electron transport."
Methylmalonic Acid [MMA] is related to Vitamin B12 biochemistry.

#ACAT is treated with Adenosylcobalmin (for high MMA), bile salts, policosanol, pancreatic enzymes, vitamin K, vitamin E, lactoferrin, nucleotides, and CQ10. ...but which ones, how much and how long you take each of these (if at all) depends on your other mutations as well as biochemical testing. Things you want to monitor ... ..more

ACAT Acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase AKA A bad Gut & Oxalates issues. This is Priority mutation # 2.

Although this mutation is fairly uncommon, it significantly impacts the Energy Cycle (citric acid cycle) and mitochondrial function. The influences are wide and far ranging and include bile salt production, cholesterol, fatty acids, and the processing of oxalates. Notwithstanding a partial or full defect, many have a “functional” variation due to the impact of aluminum, heavy metals, and toxins as well as other defects that impact this area such as the NOS, MTHFR, & CBS. Upon viewing the methylation community diagram, it is important to note that the energy cycle is closely connected to each sequence, yet it is intimately linked to both the waste cycle and SAM’s Corporation.

Since the energy cycle is essential for processing and converting all dietary nutrients (glucose, fats, proteins) into useable forms of energy, a breakdown anywhere down the line might trip an internal alarm. This is analogous to your car’s “low fuel” gauge. Just as any industry processes coal, gas, or oil for energy production, your body must have the essential nutrients in order to properly function. If you visualize the energy cycle as a clock, each hour represents an area in which one nutrient or substance converts into a more compatible form of energy. Depending on digestive function, diet, rate of absorption, and the presence of any genetic quirks, a problem might occur at any point within the device. This may lead to significant chemical imbalances within your body chemistry as well as mitochondrial dysfunction or disorders.

The ACAT plays a key role in creating bile salts, which is crucial for cholesterol and other membrane lipid balances. While we tend to view cholesterol and other fats as the “bad guys” in the war against disease, these compounds are critical for general health and wellbeing. Whether it’s the coating surrounding a nerve, cell, or organ, cholesterol is essential in its production. Think of your home’s electrical wiring and the thick, plastic or rubber coating normally found protecting it. An exposed wire is vulnerable and may “short out,” so that the impulse isn’t transmitted. Similarly, the body’s nervous system requires the protection afforded from a nice, thick fatty coating or fundamental connections may never be made. An exposed nerve may lead to a misfire, which is often the source behind the early symptoms found in neuroimmune disorders. This often includes signs such as tremors, muscle fasciculations, weakness, and fatigue as well as word groping and poor concentration and retention. Without cholesterol, you also cannot make several vital hormones, including, your sex hormones (estrogen & testosterone) or insulin. Therefore, low cholesterol levels are not as beneficial as one would initially think.

Finally, if a chronically ill person has had heavy aluminum or other toxic exposures along with a partially functioning ACAT, energy production is likely to stall to a near standstill. Moreover, as outlined in the energy cycle, other problems may include:
1. More B-12 depletion, which has ramifications throughout the entire system.
2. Cholesterol & fatty acid imbalances, often leading to toxic fatty acid buildup & high cholesterol.
3. Decreasing bile salts & increased taurine production as well as poor cell wall function since they all rely
on the proper breakdown of cholesterol through the ACAT.
4. Poor breakdown of fats, carbohydrates, & proteins to fuel other cells, nerves, tissue, & organs.
5. Rising oxalate levels that may cause painful urination and bladder & kidney stones.
6. Co Q-10 reduction, which is also necessary for mitochondrial function & energy.
7. Limited energy for the Waste Facility & SAM’s Corp. due to less conversion of methionine to SAMe. In
having over 400 methylation functions, SAMe is critical for the entire community.
As the energy factories of each cell, mitochondrial damage has significant implications. In fact, anything that demands more energy, including the gut and the brain, are particularly vulnerable. Significant blocks may limit the availability of bile salts; hence the digestive process is doubly burdened. This provides a valid reason for many unexplained digestive problems, while explaining poor growth & development as well as failure to thrive. Well-studied toxins such as aluminum, lead, mercury, and MSG also greatly impact this factory. This is one reason those with known mitochondrial disorders are discouraged from eating foods with pesticides, MSG, and aluminum. Ultimately, anyone with multiple risk factors is especially prone to mitochondrial dysfunction.

Monitor for oxalates, high taurine, MMA, and/or methionine levels as well as low cholesterol.
Ethanolamine and the ... ..more

The Citric Acid Cycle AKA “The Power Company” is essential for processing and converting all dietary nutrients (vitamins, minerals, fats, amino acids) into useable forms of energy just as any power industry processes coal, gas, or oil for energy production. If you visualize this cycle as a clock, each hour represents an area in which one nutrient converts into a more compatible form of energy. Depending on digestive function, diet, rate of absorption, and the presence of any genetic quirks, a problem might occur at any point within this clock. This may lead to significant metabolic (chemical processing) imbalances within ... ..more

The Urea Cycle filters & processes toxic waste. Makes nitric oxide to limit free radical injury & maintains open & clean blood vessels to protect the heart & brain.
#NitricOxide #UreaCycle #Methylation ..more

Elevated BUN
Urine excretion/detox of metals for prolonged periods

Supports for Kidney Health:
Kidney Support Formula RNA
CBS/NOS Compounded Supplement
#Cranberry Caps (In UltiFend and NaturoMycin Spray & Caps)
#Cranberry Juice -Sweeten with Xylitol or Super Stevia
Curbita Bladder Caps (In NaturoMycin Caps)
#SAM-e (Low dose in Ultimate B, ACAT/BHMT, MethylMax, MethylMate A, and UltiFend)
#ATP -20 (In MitoForce and MTR/MTRR/SUOX)

STEP ONE: Layering in The Foundation
Knowing your Nervous system #dominance is an integral part in establishing the treatment process.
A). Remove or limit triggers:
Processed foods contain excitotoxins, dyes, and #toxic preservatives. It is also crucial to remove obvious food #allergies . Please see Resqua pages on #excitotoxins for more information. This is simply defined and discussed in detail. 

B). Begin general support:
Provide a good foundation for your nervous system type and begin nutritional support. Though life threatening reactions would be extremely rare (and to my knowledge, unheard of), moving too quickly can result in more intense symptoms of ... ..more

Elevated AST (SGOT)
Elevated ALT (SGPT)
Elevated alkaline phosphatase (ALP)
Elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)
Elevated #billirubin
Elevated #cholesterol
Elevated triglycerides
Long term chelation with #sulfur based chelating agents
High level excretion of toxic #metals on #fecal tests

b) Supports for Liver Health:
Organ/Liver Support Formula RNA
#MTHFR A1298C+/Liver Support BH4 Compounded Supplement
Ultimate B Complex
Cod Liver Oil -CLO
Shark Liver Oil - Norwegian Shark Liver Oil
#SAM-e (Low dose in Ultimate B, ACAT/BHMT, MethylMax, MethylMate, and UltiFend)
Rosemary (In NaturoMycin Spray, MethylMax, VDR FOK, UltiFend and Vita D-Light Spray)
#Quercetin 500 Plus (In UltiFend and ... ..more

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The Energy or Citric Acid Cycle:
The Krebs cycle, also called the citric acid cycle or the “Energy Cycle,” is a series of chemical reactions that convert food (sugar, protein, and fat) into energy (ATP). It is referred to as a cycle since it should always end where it began. This process occurs through three main stages within each cell:

1). Glycolysis, otherwise known as the breakdown of sugar, yields 2 molecules of ATP, 2 molecules of NADH, and two forms of pyruvate (6 forms of currency in all). This is actually a step that takes place before the energy ... ..more


Evaluating the nervous system’s style or “dominance” is a key factor in the initial process i.e dopamine or seratonin dominance. This will allow for a more targeted regimen, based on your individual needs. This is why consulting with your Doctor is pivotal.

1. Slowly adding basic supplements & support: general minerals, vitamin B’s & B-12, digestive enzymes, probiotics, antioxidants, essential fatty acids, etc.

2. Gut Health is critical. Since most chronically ill adults & children have at least 1-2 (if not 3-4!) enzyme defects that affect the gut and digestion, the gut is always a factor. Gut bugs tend to ... ..more

1). #MTHFR #A1298C + #Liver & #BH4 support
Start at a few crumbs per day and very gradually, go up over several weeks’ time (generally 4-6 weeks). The goal is 1⁄2 to 1 capsule daily ($54.95/60 caps & $29.95/30 caps). This is whether you have the MTHFR A1298C defect or not.

2). Black Bear Spray or Get B12 Spray
Start at 1-2 sprays per day and very gradually work up to 3-5 sprays once or twice daily. A tip for adults who develop headaches with wine, it is very likely that you are sensitive to sulfites and the ... ..more