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Vitamin B12 is one of the most frequently prescribed treatments in chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) yet it is not uncommon
for it to perform poorly or even to have negative effectsthus. Here Fred provides some of the reasons he believes B12 does not sometimes work in ME/CFS

Taking It in Tablet Form- Active b12 is taken as an oral tablet reducing its absorbtion to below 1%. A 1000mcg active b12 oral tablet might bind as much as 10mcg of b12. Again the b12 has to be squeezed through a keyhole that limits the amount and is subject to ... ..more

When a genetic disorder is diagnosed in a family, family members often want to know the likelihood that they or their children will develop the condition. This can be difficult to predict in some cases because many factors influence a person’s chances of developing a genetic condition. One important factor is how the condition is inherited. For example:

Autosomal dominant inheritance: A person affected by an autosomal dominant disorder has a 50 percent chance of passing the mutated gene to each child. The chance that a child will not inherit the mutated gene is also 50 percent (illustration).

Autosomal ... ..more

Mitochondria (illustration) are structures within cells that convert the energy from food into a form that cells can use. Although most DNA is packaged in chromosomes within the nucleus, mitochondria also have a small amount of their own DNA (known as mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA). In some cases, inherited changes in mitochondrial DNA can cause problems with growth, development, and function of the body’s systems. These mutations disrupt the mitochondria’s ability to generate energy efficiently for the cell.

Conditions caused by mutations in mitochondrial DNA often involve multiple organ systems. The effects of these conditions are most pronounced ... ..more

ACAT is Acetyl-Coenzyme A Acetyltransferase [ACAT] [mitochondria]
A block at this point in [ACAT] can lead to increased levels of MMA (Methylmalonic Acid)." ...."MMA may inhibit Succinate CoQ Reductase. The enzyme succinate CoQ Reductase is important in electron transport."
Methylmalonic Acid [MMA] is related to Vitamin B12 biochemistry.

#ACAT is treated with Adenosylcobalmin (for high MMA), bile salts, policosanol, pancreatic enzymes, vitamin K, vitamin E, lactoferrin, nucleotides, and CQ10. ...but which ones, how much and how long you take each of these (if at all) depends on your other mutations as well as biochemical testing. Things you want to monitor ... ..more

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What is ACAT Gene Mutation

  3 years, 10 months ago

ACAT Acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase AKA A bad Gut & Oxalates issues. This is Priority mutation # 2.

Although this mutation is fairly uncommon, it significantly impacts the Energy Cycle (citric acid cycle) and mitochondrial function. The influences are wide and far ranging and include bile salt production, cholesterol, fatty acids, and the processing of oxalates. Notwithstanding a partial or full defect, many have a “functional” variation due to the impact of aluminum, heavy metals, and toxins as well as other defects that impact this area such as the NOS, MTHFR, & CBS. Upon viewing the methylation community diagram, it is important to note that the energy cycle is closely connected to each sequence, yet it is intimately linked to both the waste cycle and SAM’s Corporation.

Since the energy cycle is essential for processing and converting all dietary nutrients (glucose, fats, proteins) into useable forms of energy, a breakdown anywhere down the line might trip an internal alarm. This is analogous to your car’s “low fuel” gauge. Just as any industry processes coal, gas, or oil for energy production, your body must have the essential nutrients in order to properly function. If you visualize the energy cycle as a clock, each hour represents an area in which one nutrient or substance converts into a more compatible form of energy. Depending on digestive function, diet, rate of absorption, and the presence of any genetic quirks, a problem might occur at any point within the device. This may lead to significant chemical imbalances within your body chemistry as well as mitochondrial dysfunction or disorders.

The ACAT plays a key role in creating bile salts, which is crucial for cholesterol and other membrane lipid balances. While we tend to view cholesterol and other fats as the “bad guys” in the war against disease, these compounds are critical for general health and wellbeing. Whether it’s the coating surrounding a nerve, cell, or organ, cholesterol is essential in its production. Think of your home’s electrical wiring and the thick, plastic or rubber coating normally found protecting it. An exposed wire is vulnerable and may “short out,” so that the impulse isn’t transmitted. Similarly, the body’s nervous system requires the protection afforded from a nice, thick fatty coating or fundamental connections may never be made. An exposed nerve may lead to a misfire, which is often the source behind the early symptoms found in neuroimmune disorders. This often includes signs such as tremors, muscle fasciculations, weakness, and fatigue as well as word groping and poor concentration and retention. Without cholesterol, you also cannot make several vital hormones, including, your sex hormones (estrogen & testosterone) or insulin. Therefore, low cholesterol levels are not as beneficial as one would initially think.

Finally, if a chronically ill person has had heavy aluminum or other toxic exposures along with a partially functioning ACAT, energy production is likely to stall to a near standstill. Moreover, as outlined in the energy cycle, other problems may include:
1. More B-12 depletion, which has ramifications throughout the entire system.
2. Cholesterol & fatty acid imbalances, often leading to toxic fatty acid buildup & high cholesterol.
3. Decreasing bile salts & increased taurine production as well as poor cell wall function since they all rely
on the proper breakdown of cholesterol through the ACAT.
4. Poor breakdown of fats, carbohydrates, & proteins to fuel other cells, nerves, tissue, & organs.
5. Rising oxalate levels that may cause painful urination and bladder & kidney stones.
6. Co Q-10 reduction, which is also necessary for mitochondrial function & energy.
7. Limited energy for the Waste Facility & SAM’s Corp. due to less conversion of methionine to SAMe. In
having over 400 methylation functions, SAMe is critical for the entire community.
As the energy factories of each cell, mitochondrial damage has significant implications. In fact, anything that demands more energy, including the gut and the brain, are particularly vulnerable. Significant blocks may limit the availability of bile salts; hence the digestive process is doubly burdened. This provides a valid reason for many unexplained digestive problems, while explaining poor growth & development as well as failure to thrive. Well-studied toxins such as aluminum, lead, mercury, and MSG also greatly impact this factory. This is one reason those with known mitochondrial disorders are discouraged from eating foods with pesticides, MSG, and aluminum. Ultimately, anyone with multiple risk factors is especially prone to mitochondrial dysfunction.

Monitor for oxalates, high taurine, MMA, and/or methionine levels as well as low cholesterol.
Ethanolamine and the ... ..more


What is The Citric Acid Cycle ?

  3 years, 10 months ago

The Citric Acid Cycle AKA “The Power Company” is essential for processing and converting all dietary nutrients (vitamins, minerals, fats, amino acids) into useable forms of energy just as any power industry processes coal, gas, or oil for energy production. If you visualize this cycle as a clock, each hour represents an area in which one nutrient converts into a more compatible form of energy. Depending on digestive function, diet, rate of absorption, and the presence of any genetic quirks, a problem might occur at any point within this clock. This may lead to significant metabolic (chemical processing) imbalances within ... ..more

Adverse reactions to fluoroquinolone #antibiotics ( #Cipro #Ciprofloxacin #Levaquin #Levofloxacin #Avelox #Moxifloxacin and #Floxin #Ofloxacin ) can manifest in patients as a multi-symptom chronic illness that most resembles #fibromyalgia #chronic fatigue syndrome #CFS / #myalgic encephalopathy (ME) and/or an #autoimmune diseases. As is the case with those chronic multi-symptom illnesses, the symptoms of fluoroquinolone toxicity vary greatly from one individual to another. Though almost everyone who suffers from fluoroquinolone toxicity has some sort of musculoskeletal issues (fluoroquinolones have a black box warning about the risk of tendon rupture), #neuropathy and autonomic nervous system dysfunction, those broad categories of symptoms are where the ... ..more


What is the Urea Cycle ?

  3 years, 10 months ago

The Urea Cycle filters & processes toxic waste. Makes nitric oxide to limit free radical injury & maintains open & clean blood vessels to protect the heart & brain.
#NitricOxide #UreaCycle #Methylation ..more

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What is the Krebs Cycle?

  3 years, 10 months ago

The Energy or Citric Acid Cycle:
The Krebs cycle, also called the citric acid cycle or the “Energy Cycle,” is a series of chemical reactions that convert food (sugar, protein, and fat) into energy (ATP). It is referred to as a cycle since it should always end where it began. This process occurs through three main stages within each cell:

1). Glycolysis, otherwise known as the breakdown of sugar, yields 2 molecules of ATP, 2 molecules of NADH, and two forms of pyruvate (6 forms of currency in all). This is actually a step that takes place before the energy ... ..more



Foods high in Choline

  3 years, 9 months ago

If someone has the #MTHFD1 #SNP , then their body will need more choline. Adequate #Choline is required for cell membrane stability and #detoxification processes.
The MTHFD1 rs2236225 the #gene function is three distninct enzymatic activities related to #folate ; if you have a #mutation the need would be for choline. The other MTHFD1 rs6922269 is an enzyme involved in the synthesis of #mitochondria and the consequences are associated with coronary artery disease.

Foods high in Choline include:
Egg yolks
wheat germ… 172mg per cup
Brussels sprouts…60mg per 1 cup serving
broccoli…60mg per 1 cup ... ..more