Introduction to The Vagus Nerve
In people with fatigue, food sensitivities, anxiety and gut problems, brain fog and depersonalization, the vagus nerve is almost always at play. These people have lower vagal tone, which means a lower ability of the vagus nerve to activate.
The only question is what aspect of the vagus nerve is malfunctioning and how much the vagus nerve is a problem vs. other aspects of your biology.
The vagus nerve is part of the parasympathetic nervous system, referred to as the rest and digest system. It’s not the only nerve ... ..more
By Helen Janneson Bense
A1298C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) affects the enzyme known as 5,10 MethyleneTetraHydroFolate Reductase (MTHFR). This polymorphism involves a down regulation of the MTHFR enzyme, responsible for the backwards reaction of the folate cycle, where 5-methylfolate (5MTHF) is converted into tetrahydrofolate (THF). This reaction is most important for the production of BH4 – tetrahydrobiopterin. Each turn of the folate cycle and conversion of 5MTHF to THF produces 1 molecule of BH4. In heterozygous and homozygous states, enzyme activity will be compromised by
approximately 30% and 70% respectively.
Functions of BH4
Cofactor for all three isotypes of nitric ... ..more
I found this excellent description in Amy Yasko's forum: ch3nutrigenomics.com. It was posted by one of the members on the site- raji: http://www.ch3nutrigenomics...
This is a private blog, but it is a very rich source of information about methylation, nutrigenomics and dietary supplementation
Here is a copy of the post:
Methyl group: A methyl group is simply a single carbon atom bonded to 3 hydrogen atoms (CH3).
Methylation: Transfer of methyl groups from one chemical to another is called methylation. Essentially any chemical compound that has a methyl group as part of its chemical ... ..more
Wow. What a thread! My serum B6 was a bit over ref range. My OAT showed it to be low. So my doctor thinks I'm not processing or absorbing it. She started me on P5P, but I have to spread my 33 mg of it throughout the day, or else I get jitters and tingly extremities. I'm not sure my OAT was interpreted optimally. My mag RBC was 5.5 before I recently increased supplementation. I know I have some kind of source of lack with zinc, because starting that cured my chronic insomnia. I have brain inflammation ... ..more
There is little known about the A1298C MTHFR mutation. Or so it seems.
Research seems to ignore it almost completely while the C677T MTHFR mutation gets all the attention and glory.
For those who have the A1298C MTHFR mutation, this is frustrating.
Symptoms exist and doctors are saying there is no correlation between the MTHFR A1298C mutation and your symptoms – right?
I’d like to prove them wrong – at least for the symptoms which do correlate with the A1298C MTHFR mutation.
The MTHFR A1298C mutation may affect you if you are either:
--Homozygous A1298C MTHFR mutation
--Compound heterozgous A1298C + C677T ... ..more
The Major Tasks of Methylation
In order to provide a brief overview, the following methylation tasks have been vastly streamlined. In reality, there is an endless array of both direct and indirect Methylation activities within the human body. Even so, this summary should provide greater understanding of this highly complex pathway, as well as the complications that can arise from various defects or toxic exposures.
Methylation is responsible for the following:
1. Nervous system function (brain, spinal cord, & nerve cells). It’s critical for the insulation around nerves (myelin), which allows signals to properly transmit via this sheath, or outer ... ..more
The major problem with unnatural synthetic FOLIC ACID is that when there is more #FolicAcid floating around in the blood stream than the real thing…L-Methyl Folate, then the excess Folic ACID can get stuck in the Folate Receptor Alpha [ #FRa ] receptor sites on the Blood Brain Barrier [BBB].
How the “FOLATE CYCLE” connects to the “ #BH4 TetraHydroBiopterine CYCLE” and how this influences the making of Neurotransmitters: #Melatonin, #Dopamine, #Norepinepherine and #Epinephrine [ #Adrenalin ].
Folic ACID completely blocks up the FRa receptor site on the BBB and the entire complex then has to be completely broken down to be recycled.
ONLY ... ..more
"As explained well in the revised STTM book, which you should have on hand and bookmarked at the doctors office. The book is in English, Spanish, German and Swedish.
TSH: for diagnosis of hypopituitary, NOT to diagnose or dose your hypothyroidism (unless it’s high). If you allow a doctor to diagnose or dose you by this lab test and range i.e. to say you are normal simply because it’s in range or below 10…you’ll could still be hypothyroid.
Free #T4 and Free #T3 (note the word “free”–important since it measures ... ..more
Perhaps the best way to think of neurotransmitters is with an automobile example. Most automobiles in the United States are made to cruise at 60-70 miles per hour, perfect for interstate highways and that summer vacation. If we place that same automobile on a racetrack and drive day-after-day at 130 mph, two things would happen:
1). Parts would fail and
2). We would run the engine so hot that we’d likely evaporate or burnout the oil.
In fact, neurotransmitters such as serotonin act as the brain’s “oil”.
Comparable to a normal automobile on a race track, when we ... ..more
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) supports one's health, well-being and detoxification and can be defective in a fairly large percentage of our population. About 45% of Caucasians, 70% of Hispanics and about 30% of southern Italians have a genetic defect.
The MTHFR gene produces the MTHFR enzyme. This enzyme is responsible for the circulating form of folate. Folate is very important in homocysteine regulation. The MTHFR enzyme metabolizes folic acid into 5-MTHF, which is needed to combine with homocysteine to break it down and to facilitate methylation (detoxification) processes in the body. The MTHFR enzyme is essential for the body to ... ..more
It is important to understand the basics of methylation, and although a more detailed study of #methylation chemistry may be interesting, for our needs, it is not really necessary to study it here as it will only serve to confuse matters, so only the most important aspects will be considered.
Put simply, the methylation process makes #neurotransmitters (mood building blocks), and the issue of a person being an under or over methylator can be confusing, because there is contradiction between the various sources of information on the methylation process. For our purposes, we'll say that an over methylator is ... ..more
MAO-A (Monoamine oxidase A) is a critical enzyme involved in breaking down important neurotransmitters such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. While a homozygous (+/+) mutation is very common, prolonged periods of stress, violence, or trauma can lead to epigenetic changes that further decrease enzyme activity. On the table above, males only have one allele since the gene is inherited through from their mother since it is located on the X chromosome.
Males are more likely to have this mutation, represented on the table as homozygous (+). Only females can be heterozygous (+/-) for this mutation.
When a (+/+) MAO-A mutation is combined with a ... ..more
CBS (cystathionine beta synthase) catalyzes the first step of the transsulfuration pathway, from homocysteine to cystathionine. Dr. Yasko considers addressing CBS mutations as first priority aside from addressing the gut.
This enzyme converts homocysteine to cystathionine. In a separate reaction, cystathionine is then converted to cysteine which in turn goes to taurine or glutathione among other things.
CBS defects are actually upregulations. This means the enzyme works too fast. Therefore, it is common to see low levels of cystathionine and homocysteine since there is a rapid conversion to taurine. This leads to high levels of taurine and ammonia.
The upregulation ... ..more
#Sympathetic Nervous System “Fight or flight” or “Type A’s”
There are 3 basic #SNS Dominant subtypes: Basic, Extreme, & Inefficient SNS Dominant types. The following is a summary of the average SNS Dominant types.
Personality traits vary widely in this group depending on whether they are more analytical vs. emotional. For instance, more emotionally based SNS Dominants are likely to be more volatile and “nervous” whereas the more analytical type does not.
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activates the glands and organs that defend the body against attack, whether it is running from a saber toothed tiger or you are struggling with a dreadful job and difficult boss. It is called the fight or flight system and once activated, it directs more blood to the muscles, #adrenals and the brain yet away from the digestive organs and skin. The adrenals pump out #epinephrine while the sympathetic nerve endings throughout the body release #norepinephrine . This system is #catabolic , which simply means that energy is used to prepare for defense, rather than for nourishment, healing, or waste removal. #Sympathetic activity triggers the thyroid and adrenal glands to provide extra energy for fighting or running away. The heart rate and blood pressure also increase, just as the blood flow to the digestive system and kidneys decreases. This process is largely due to the intensified release of stimulating chemicals, known as #neurotransmitters #epinephrine and #norepinephrine . While this activity is critical for survival, those who have chronic activation of the SNS often develop #anxiety, #insomnia , heart racing or disease (heart failure), and adrenal #fatigue . They also have “goose bumps” more frequently than other types and tend to do best in warmer weather. A Sympathetic Dominant Nervous System often leads to significant gastro-intestinal issues due to the poor #digestion of meats and fats. These folks often feel as though food "sits like a rock in my gut". Due to the rising levels of Norepinephrine (the body’s flight or fight neurotransmitter), digestion shuts down to reserve precious resources for survival. Chronic activation can lead many to feel agitated, jittery, wired, & restless as well as prone to sleep disturbances and anxiety. They may also experience the vicious cycle of the “Wired but tired” sensation when eating an inappropriate diet or taking the wrong supplements, which in their case, is filled with sweets and other junk foods or heavy proteins. When a dysfunctional sympathetic nervous system reigns supreme, one may experience anxiety, stress, or feelings of panic, which should normally only occur in response to a perceived threat. Subsequently, they may overreact to even the mildest of daily troubles.
These individuals often start out thin and active yet poor diets—usually filled with sweets and starchy carbs often lead to later weight gain. When busy or stressed, they frequently forget to eat regularly, if at all. They are often pale, do not tolerate cold weather and tend to have colder hands & feet. Such individuals are often impatient and easily frustrated or angered, yet it appears to quickly pass. They often make for volatile partners and bosses, in that they frequently explode; yet minutes later have already moved on. They are also frequently viewed as “intense,” “aloof,” or “bold,” and have a tendency of “sticking their foot in their mouths” by being too aggressive or forward. Nevertheless, #genetic & environmental factors influence this area considerably.
They are also very driven, ambitious, and motivated people who may excel in academics or in high energy vocations that require multi tasking and social interaction. Many also enjoy a stimulating debate or confrontation (attorneys, politicians, generals). When healthy ... ..more
A chemical made in the BH4 cycle, which is used to produce dopamine and serotonin, neurotransmitters strategic in regulating mood, sleep, attention and focus, reward seeking behavior, addiction, and sense of wellbeing. BH4 is also critical in the urea cycle (waste facility) for cleaning up ammonia and making nitric oxide. A shortage of this important chemical has widespread repercussions.
Tetrahydrobiopterin BH4 Cycle produces the BH4 used for making neuro-talkers (dopamine, epinephrine, nor-epi, serotonin, & melatonin). It cleans up toxic ammonia in The Waste Cycle & makes Nitric oxide to protect the heart & brain.
Though controversy exists regarding this cycle’s function, Dr. Yasko’s theory indicates that The Big Motherflipper (MTHFR A1298C) may drive this cycle in the reverse direction and several independent studies support this finding. This leads to a chemical exchange among BH2 to BH4, a multi-purpose product that is used in both the Waste Facility (urea cycle) and BH4 Industry. Within the Better Health 4 Life Industry, BH4 produces chemicals known as neurotransmitters, or neurotalkers (NTs), including dopamine, serotonin, melatonin, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. NTs are central for the communication between nerves and cells as well as stabilizing the crisis response, mood, and sleep cycles. Chronically low BH4 levels increase the risk for ADD/ADHD, Bipolar Disorder, OCD, insomnia, depression, anxiety, and many other quality of life issues. Think of this company as AT&T with a philanthropic twist since it donates BH4 to the Waste Facility for environmental clean up as well as supporting the community in health & wellbeing.
The Waste Facility uses BH4 to clean up toxic ammonia and generates nitric oxide, an element that keeps blood vessels open and free of plaque. Yet if BH4 is scarce, it cannot clean up waste or deliver vital nutrients to the Power Plant (fumarate) so that noxious chemicals back up into SAM’s Corporation. Given the fact that it takes 2 grains of BH4 to clean up 1 granule of ammonia, as well as 2 of BH4 to create just 1 bit of nitric oxide, its easy to see how problems might arise. This underscores the BH4 Industry’s role throughout the community since unlike an actual factory; it isn’t permitted to shut down for repairs or maintenance.
While there are many factors that may impact this cycle, several are listed below:
1. A ... ..more
Lithium has been known for years to be useful for #bipolar disorder. Despite all that is known about lithium and its impact on biochemical pathways, no one has defined the mechanism by which lithium has its impact on bipolar disorder. It is likely to be an effect on multiple pathways. There are a number of enzymes in the body that are known to be impacted and inhibited by lithium.
Lithium comes together with methylation at #COMT, the enzyme catechol-o-methyl-transferase. COMT breaks down #dopamine and #norepinephrine. Dopamine is a critical #neurotransmitter for motivation, focus and attention, among other functions ... ..more
#Homocysteine is a toxic waste by-product of protein and amino acid metabolism, and #methylation in the body is going on constantly, converting this damaging homocysteine into the #antioxidant #glutathione.
Methylation also converts homocysteine into an important biochemical called #SAMe , a vital methyl donor for the production of the all important neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin and their derivatives. This is how the body makes good use of this toxic element.
Keeping homocysteine at a healthy, low level is extremely important for keeping our risk of heart disease, stroke and Alzheimer's disease as low as possible. High levels of homocysteine, if left ... ..more
1) Biopterin/Neopterin: For those with A1298C mutations, #BH4 (also known as tetrahydrobiopterin) levels are typically quite low. This test provides insight to how low these levels are and why. If neopterin levels are high, then I am considering the possibility of a lingering infection, inflammation or chronic immune response that is preventing #biopterin from being formed. Thus, this test provides information not only potentially low biopterin levels but also why they may be low.
If a doctor simply prescribes BH4 without understanding the need to address the inflammation and chronic infections, it is band-aide treatment over a gaping wound ... ..more
The methylation pathway can be likened to the body’s chief housekeeping and maintenance systems. It is responsible for many of the most complex and vital undertakings throughout the body, occurring each time the body takes one substance and turns it into another. This chemical exchange occurs between enzymes, amino acids, proteins, and other molecules in order to maintain cell function. Methylation regulates gene expression, allowing beneficial genes to function while keeping less desirable genes at bay. It also provides the backbone for the immune system, DNA, RNA, cellular repair, detoxification, hormone regulation, and communication between the cells and ... ..more