*Circulatory & blood clotting factors
*DNA synthesis & repair via thymidine synthesis
*Gene expression via epigenetic regulations such as histone modification
*Nitric oxide synthesis, aka blood vessel elasticity
*Removal of homocysteine, a potentially toxic and atherogenic amino acid
*Synthesis of powerhouse antioxidants such as Glutathione & SOD
*Neurotransmitter synthesis & degradation - dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, glutamate, GABA
*Biotransformation (aka “metabolism & detoxification”) of chemicals, carcinogens & drugs
*Synthesis of immune cells
*B-12 & Folate utilization
*Organ, tissue and fetal development
While their program is expensive it does seem like it would really make one a kind of expert.
Now if I could just find common, insured tests for ... ..more
By Helen Janneson Bense
A1298C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) affects the enzyme known as 5,10 MethyleneTetraHydroFolate Reductase (MTHFR). This polymorphism involves a down regulation of the MTHFR enzyme, responsible for the backwards reaction of the folate cycle, where 5-methylfolate (5MTHF) is converted into tetrahydrofolate (THF). This reaction is most important for the production of BH4 – tetrahydrobiopterin. Each turn of the folate cycle and conversion of 5MTHF to THF produces 1 molecule of BH4. In heterozygous and homozygous states, enzyme activity will be compromised by
approximately 30% and 70% respectively.
Functions of BH4
Cofactor for all three isotypes of nitric ... ..more
Functional medicine testing involves laboratory tests for biochemical and nutrient imbalances. Testing is individualized for each patient, based on their symptoms and medical history.
“We can also test for imbalances in other areas that give us specific information to create a personalized treatment plan for each patient,” says Dr. Young. Examples include:
Detoxification and biotransformation imbalances
Underlying causes of inflammation
Digestive and absorptive imbalances
Imbalances in gut microbiota
Genetic mutations like MTHFR that influence methylation pathways
Methylation is a key biochemical process that is essential for the proper function of almost all of your body’s systems. It occurs billions of times every second; it helps repair your DNA on a daily basis; it controls homocysteine (an unhealthy compound that can damage blood vessels); it helps recycle molecules needed for detoxification; and it helps maintain mood and keep inflammation in check.
To keep methylation running smoothly you need optimal levels of B vitamins. Without enough B vitamins methylation breaks down, and the results can be catastrophic. In these cases we see more birth defects like spina ... ..more
The methylation pathway can be likened to the body’s chief housekeeping and maintenance systems. It is responsible for many of the most complex and vital undertakings throughout the body, occurring each time the body takes one substance and turns it into another. This chemical exchange occurs between enzymes, amino acids, proteins, and other molecules in order to maintain cell function. Methylation regulates gene expression, allowing beneficial genes to function while keeping less desirable genes at bay. It also provides the backbone for the immune system, DNA, RNA, cellular repair, detoxification, hormone regulation, and communication between the cells and ... ..more
I found this excellent description in Amy Yasko's forum: ch3nutrigenomics.com. It was posted by one of the members on the site- raji: http://www.ch3nutrigenomics...
This is a private blog, but it is a very rich source of information about methylation, nutrigenomics and dietary supplementation
Here is a copy of the post:
Methyl group: A methyl group is simply a single carbon atom bonded to 3 hydrogen atoms (CH3).
Methylation: Transfer of methyl groups from one chemical to another is called methylation. Essentially any chemical compound that has a methyl group as part of its chemical ... ..more
#Spirulina provides the raw materials [amino acids] for #DNA and #RNA repair. Spirulina is a rich source of B6 and Folate [B9]. Spirulina also contains #antioxidant phytonutrients called anthocyanins. #Anthocyanins are powerful #anticarcinogenics .
Spirulina has strong anti-microbial effects that help create a proper balance among the #gut flora. Spirulina is helpful in the gut because it helps to controlling the growth of pathogenic [Bad] #bacteria and #yeasts in the digestive system. A proper healthy balance of gut flora is critical for optimal digestion and nutritional absorption. Keeping the gut flora healthy and properly balanced is an important part of #detoxification ... ..more
Summary of analogies used in methylation community: CEOs: Directs each corporation in organized steps
Supervisors: Enzymes such as MTHFRs, COMT, SHMT, and BHMT
Enzymes are proteins that are produced by living cells and regulate the body’s process to breakdown products, such as ammonia.
Employees: Chemicals, proteins, DNA, etc.
Work tags: Methyl groups (Homocysteine, SAM, Methionine) The Chain Gang: Homocysteine (HCY)
Synopsis of the Cycles
1). Power Plant = Citric Acid Cycle =
Formerly known as the Kreb’s cycle) Recognized as the mitochondrial or energy cycle
2). Garbage Dump (& Recycling) =
The urea cycle, ammonia cleanup & nitric oxide production (heart/blood vessel protection)
3). Better Health 4 Life Corp (BH4) = Communications “AT&T” & toxic waste cleanup Neurotalkers: Dopamine, Serotonin, & Norepi
4). SAM’s Corp. = Methionine Cycle =
The major producer of methyl donors and the passageway to the garbage dump (NOS) & liver via the CBS enzyme
5). Farmer Folate = Folate Cycle =
Homegrown” RNA & DNA, methyl groups and Homocysteine (HCY) regulation
The Meaning of Methylation
Methylation is truly a multi-tasking marvel that allows us to be “healthy and human.” Though this highly intricate process occurs within each cell as well as in the fluid supplying the brain and within the liver, it is responsible for the most vital undertakings throughout body chemistry. Methylation determines who we are, what we look like, and how we behave and it is central to our physical, emotional, and mental wellbeing. Without methylation, we could not survive; hence, it is the perfect pathway to focus on for understanding autoimmune ... ..more
Urine & stool changes throughout #detoxification . Oftentimes, the urine will change in color and/or clarity as you layer in important cofactors and #methyl groups. The following rules typically apply and if in doubt, obtain a UTM/UEE or fecal metals. Bear in mind that #cadmium precedes lead whereas #nickel often precedes #mercury. You may also see high cadmium levels due to the presence of #HPylori. Moreover, high viral #titers tend to coincide with the presence of heavy metals. Dr. Yasko has found that in some cases, the mercury and other metals were not eliminated (even with chelation therapy) until the ... ..more
The Major Tasks of Methylation
In order to provide a brief overview, the following methylation tasks have been vastly streamlined. In reality, there is an endless array of both direct and indirect Methylation activities within the human body. Even so, this summary should provide greater understanding of this highly complex pathway, as well as the complications that can arise from various defects or toxic exposures.
Methylation is responsible for the following:
1. Nervous system function (brain, spinal cord, & nerve cells). It’s critical for the insulation around nerves (myelin), which allows signals to properly transmit via this sheath, or outer ... ..more
ME/CFS patients are notoriously very sensitive to medicines and supplements. It’s common to have adverse reactions, or to only be able to tolerate small doses.
Newbies are especially prone to taking too large of doses or going too fast. The following explains how to manage such sensitivity.
Start Low and Go Slow
Whenever you start a new medicine or supplement, it is suggested to practice Start Low and Go Slow.
This means starting with very small doses, much less than a normal dose, such as 1/8 of pill. That way, if you're going ... ..more
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) supports one's health, well-being and detoxification and can be defective in a fairly large percentage of our population. About 45% of Caucasians, 70% of Hispanics and about 30% of southern Italians have a genetic defect.
The MTHFR gene produces the MTHFR enzyme. This enzyme is responsible for the circulating form of folate. Folate is very important in homocysteine regulation. The MTHFR enzyme metabolizes folic acid into 5-MTHF, which is needed to combine with homocysteine to break it down and to facilitate methylation (detoxification) processes in the body. The MTHFR enzyme is essential for the body to ... ..more
MTHFR C677T Mutation: Basic Protocol by Dr Lynch on February 24, 2012 in C677T MTHFR Mutations
Have one or two copies of the MTHFR C677T mutation? Don’t know what to do?
After working with 100′s of individuals with this defect, I’ve developed a protocol which may help a significant number of people.
I want to make it absolutely clear that while the MTHFR C677T mutation may be common across a number of individuals, the outcome of supplementing with various nutrients can vary tremendously due to other genetic defects, dietary and lifestyle choices and environmental exposures.
Some of ... ..more
*Cystathionine- Beta-Synthase ( #CBS ) enzyme up-regulation causes sulfates and sulfites to build up to a high enough level in the body so as to possibly block the cell’s ability to up-take sulphur #AminoAcids (cysteine, #methionine, and taurine) as well as #Glutathione and R-Lipoic Acid. Absence of these nutrients in the cells impairs detoxification from the cells.
Ten drops twice daily for 3-4 months of #SPARGA #SULPHUR #DETOX helps to resolve this condition for most patients.
CBS (cystathionine beta synthase) catalyzes the first step of the transsulfuration pathway, from homocysteine to cystathionine. Dr. Yasko considers addressing CBS mutations as first priority aside from addressing the gut.
This enzyme converts homocysteine to cystathionine. In a separate reaction, cystathionine is then converted to cysteine which in turn goes to taurine or glutathione among other things.
CBS defects are actually upregulations. This means the enzyme works too fast. Therefore, it is common to see low levels of cystathionine and homocysteine since there is a rapid conversion to taurine. This leads to high levels of taurine and ammonia.
The upregulation ... ..more
From Dr Ben:
In general, those with C677T mutations have decreased ability to produce methylfolate, increased cardiovascular risk, increased risk of blood clots, increased pain and inflammation and increased chemical sensitivity. Recommendations below support the reduction of these issues by increasing the body’s inherent ability to restore function through nutritional biochemistry.
Limit ingestion of folic acid in fortified foods as you cannot process folic acid well.
Limit or cease taking supplements or drugs with folic acid in them. Talk with your doctor before stopping.
Avoid folic acid blocking drugs such as birth control or Methotrexate.
Avoid drugs which increase ... ..more
￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼What does this process look like when it’s broken? After reading the following, you will be able to envision the implications of defects or mutations. The following is an example of the health problems that might occur.
1. Poor nerve function leads to muscle twitching, numbness, and weakness yet misfires can cause seizures, fatigue, memory loss, word groping, clumsiness (with falls & injuries), and visual or hearing loss in those with MS, CFS/ME, or Autism Spectrum Disorders.
2. Depending on the neuro-talker, imbalances often lead to a variety of disorders including: depression, anxiety, panic attacks, irritability, mood swings, OCD ... ..more
The Energy or Citric Acid Cycle:
The Krebs cycle, also called the citric acid cycle or the “Energy Cycle,” is a series of chemical reactions that convert food (sugar, protein, and fat) into energy (ATP). It is referred to as a cycle since it should always end where it began. This process occurs through three main stages within each cell:
1). Glycolysis, otherwise known as the breakdown of sugar, yields 2 molecules of ATP, 2 molecules of NADH, and two forms of pyruvate (6 forms of currency in all). This is actually a step that takes place before the energy ... ..more