Introduction to The Vagus Nerve
In people with fatigue, food sensitivities, anxiety and gut problems, brain fog and depersonalization, the vagus nerve is almost always at play. These people have lower vagal tone, which means a lower ability of the vagus nerve to activate.
The only question is what aspect of the vagus nerve is malfunctioning and how much the vagus nerve is a problem vs. other aspects of your biology.
The vagus nerve is part of the parasympathetic nervous system, referred to as the rest and digest system. It’s not the only nerve ... ..more
COMT and VDR Genes and DOPAMINE and NOREPINEPHERINE…and people sensitive to methyl donors.
Those with the Vitamin D Receptor Taq [VDR Taq (+/+)] mutations do not make Dopamine and therefore Norepinepherine very well.
Those with the Catechol-O-Methyl Transferase [COMT +/+] mutations cannot break down Dopamine and Norepinephrine very well.
A normal VDR [-/-] and the abnormal COMT [+/+] enzyme essentially aggravate the situation so that the concentration of Dopamine may be increased.
When the person has a perfect VDR taq [-/-] and they have the COMT [+/+] mutations then:
The good working VDR taq [-/-] allows them to make plenty of Dopamine.
The lousy COMT [+/+] causes ... ..more
What does it mean to "spare dopamine"? As mentioned in the above COMT discussion. Not use it? Not create it? ..more
*Circulatory & blood clotting factors
*DNA synthesis & repair via thymidine synthesis
*Gene expression via epigenetic regulations such as histone modification
*Nitric oxide synthesis, aka blood vessel elasticity
*Removal of homocysteine, a potentially toxic and atherogenic amino acid
*Synthesis of powerhouse antioxidants such as Glutathione & SOD
*Neurotransmitter synthesis & degradation - dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, glutamate, GABA
*Biotransformation (aka “metabolism & detoxification”) of chemicals, carcinogens & drugs
*Synthesis of immune cells
*B-12 & Folate utilization
*Organ, tissue and fetal development
While their program is expensive it does seem like it would really make one a kind of expert.
Now if I could just find common, insured tests for ... ..more
By Helen Janneson Bense
A1298C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) affects the enzyme known as 5,10 MethyleneTetraHydroFolate Reductase (MTHFR). This polymorphism involves a down regulation of the MTHFR enzyme, responsible for the backwards reaction of the folate cycle, where 5-methylfolate (5MTHF) is converted into tetrahydrofolate (THF). This reaction is most important for the production of BH4 – tetrahydrobiopterin. Each turn of the folate cycle and conversion of 5MTHF to THF produces 1 molecule of BH4. In heterozygous and homozygous states, enzyme activity will be compromised by
approximately 30% and 70% respectively.
Functions of BH4
Cofactor for all three isotypes of nitric ... ..more
I found this excellent description in Amy Yasko's forum: ch3nutrigenomics.com. It was posted by one of the members on the site- raji: http://www.ch3nutrigenomics...
This is a private blog, but it is a very rich source of information about methylation, nutrigenomics and dietary supplementation
Here is a copy of the post:
Methyl group: A methyl group is simply a single carbon atom bonded to 3 hydrogen atoms (CH3).
Methylation: Transfer of methyl groups from one chemical to another is called methylation. Essentially any chemical compound that has a methyl group as part of its chemical ... ..more
Summary of analogies used in methylation community: CEOs: Directs each corporation in organized steps
Supervisors: Enzymes such as MTHFRs, COMT, SHMT, and BHMT
Enzymes are proteins that are produced by living cells and regulate the body’s process to breakdown products, such as ammonia.
Employees: Chemicals, proteins, DNA, etc.
Work tags: Methyl groups (Homocysteine, SAM, Methionine) The Chain Gang: Homocysteine (HCY)
Synopsis of the Cycles
1). Power Plant = Citric Acid Cycle =
Formerly known as the Kreb’s cycle) Recognized as the mitochondrial or energy cycle
2). Garbage Dump (& Recycling) =
The urea cycle, ammonia cleanup & nitric oxide production (heart/blood vessel protection)
3). Better Health 4 Life Corp (BH4) = Communications “AT&T” & toxic waste cleanup Neurotalkers: Dopamine, Serotonin, & Norepi
4). SAM’s Corp. = Methionine Cycle =
The major producer of methyl donors and the passageway to the garbage dump (NOS) & liver via the CBS enzyme
5). Farmer Folate = Folate Cycle =
Homegrown” RNA & DNA, methyl groups and Homocysteine (HCY) regulation
The Meaning of Methylation
Methylation is truly a multi-tasking marvel that allows us to be “healthy and human.” Though this highly intricate process occurs within each cell as well as in the fluid supplying the brain and within the liver, it is responsible for the most vital undertakings throughout body chemistry. Methylation determines who we are, what we look like, and how we behave and it is central to our physical, emotional, and mental wellbeing. Without methylation, we could not survive; hence, it is the perfect pathway to focus on for understanding autoimmune ... ..more
The Folate Cycle Produces organic, homegrown RNA & DNA. Converts folate into usable forms to keep HCY* in check & sends on to SAM’s for more work tags. *HCY/Homocysteine
The Folate Cycle is the “Organic Farming Region” where everything is homegrown. This Region grows “organic” work tags (methyl groups) and is instrumental in the front-line production of new RNA and DNA. Still, this plantation is a bit old fashioned, employing a chain gang (homocysteine) to help them get the work done. Though rarely considered in everyday life, RNA & DNA are essential to making you unique, as well as directing health ... ..more
The Urea Cycle filters & processes toxic waste. Makes nitric oxide to limit free radical injury & maintains open & clean blood vessels to protect the heart & brain.
#NitricOxide #UreaCycle #Methylation ..more
There is little known about the A1298C MTHFR mutation. Or so it seems.
Research seems to ignore it almost completely while the C677T MTHFR mutation gets all the attention and glory.
For those who have the A1298C MTHFR mutation, this is frustrating.
Symptoms exist and doctors are saying there is no correlation between the MTHFR A1298C mutation and your symptoms – right?
I’d like to prove them wrong – at least for the symptoms which do correlate with the A1298C MTHFR mutation.
The MTHFR A1298C mutation may affect you if you are either:
--Homozygous A1298C MTHFR mutation
--Compound heterozgous A1298C + C677T ... ..more
The Major Tasks of Methylation
In order to provide a brief overview, the following methylation tasks have been vastly streamlined. In reality, there is an endless array of both direct and indirect Methylation activities within the human body. Even so, this summary should provide greater understanding of this highly complex pathway, as well as the complications that can arise from various defects or toxic exposures.
Methylation is responsible for the following:
1. Nervous system function (brain, spinal cord, & nerve cells). It’s critical for the insulation around nerves (myelin), which allows signals to properly transmit via this sheath, or outer ... ..more
These are the ultimate “bad guys” that roam from place to place stealing every cell’s positive energy and leaving them for dead. How are these criminals produced? Though there are many contributing factors, the Urea Cycle
( waste facility ) is by far, the largest free radical and oxidant producer in the community. Remember the waste facility aka #urea cycle is responsible for cleaning up most of the toxic waste generated within the community. Think of this cycle as your local garbage dump replete with trucks transporting recyclables and trash via the liver’s main highway ( #CBS ). In the Waste Facility ... ..more
Vitamin D Receptor “Determines donors”
VDR Taq tt = -/- (green, no defect) tolerates fewer methyl donors
VDR Taq TT = +/+ (red, complete defect) tolerates more methyl donors
Partial or complete defects may mean you will not readily absorb Vit D from sun exposure. This may also contribute to seasonal depression, particularly when the sun is at it's lowest in the fall/winter season. Many studies in the past decade have noted a strong correlation between Vitamin D deficiency and neurological degeneration. In fact, aside from having implications in Parkinson’s and dementia, this SNP is highly associated with Multiple Sclerosis ... ..more
The major problem with unnatural synthetic FOLIC ACID is that when there is more #FolicAcid floating around in the blood stream than the real thing…L-Methyl Folate, then the excess Folic ACID can get stuck in the Folate Receptor Alpha [ #FRa ] receptor sites on the Blood Brain Barrier [BBB].
How the “FOLATE CYCLE” connects to the “ #BH4 TetraHydroBiopterine CYCLE” and how this influences the making of Neurotransmitters: #Melatonin, #Dopamine, #Norepinepherine and #Epinephrine [ #Adrenalin ].
Folic ACID completely blocks up the FRa receptor site on the BBB and the entire complex then has to be completely broken down to be recycled.
ONLY ... ..more
Perhaps the best way to think of neurotransmitters is with an automobile example. Most automobiles in the United States are made to cruise at 60-70 miles per hour, perfect for interstate highways and that summer vacation. If we place that same automobile on a racetrack and drive day-after-day at 130 mph, two things would happen:
1). Parts would fail and
2). We would run the engine so hot that we’d likely evaporate or burnout the oil.
In fact, neurotransmitters such as serotonin act as the brain’s “oil”.
Comparable to a normal automobile on a race track, when we ... ..more
What does it mean to "spare dopamine"? As mentioned in the above COMT discussion. Not use it? Not create it? ..more
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) supports one's health, well-being and detoxification and can be defective in a fairly large percentage of our population. About 45% of Caucasians, 70% of Hispanics and about 30% of southern Italians have a genetic defect.
The MTHFR gene produces the MTHFR enzyme. This enzyme is responsible for the circulating form of folate. Folate is very important in homocysteine regulation. The MTHFR enzyme metabolizes folic acid into 5-MTHF, which is needed to combine with homocysteine to break it down and to facilitate methylation (detoxification) processes in the body. The MTHFR enzyme is essential for the body to ... ..more
It is important to understand the basics of methylation, and although a more detailed study of #methylation chemistry may be interesting, for our needs, it is not really necessary to study it here as it will only serve to confuse matters, so only the most important aspects will be considered.
Put simply, the methylation process makes #neurotransmitters (mood building blocks), and the issue of a person being an under or over methylator can be confusing, because there is contradiction between the various sources of information on the methylation process. For our purposes, we'll say that an over methylator is ... ..more
MAO-A (Monoamine oxidase A) is a critical enzyme involved in breaking down important neurotransmitters such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. While a homozygous (+/+) mutation is very common, prolonged periods of stress, violence, or trauma can lead to epigenetic changes that further decrease enzyme activity. On the table above, males only have one allele since the gene is inherited through from their mother since it is located on the X chromosome.
Males are more likely to have this mutation, represented on the table as homozygous (+). Only females can be heterozygous (+/-) for this mutation.
When a (+/+) MAO-A mutation is combined with a ... ..more